Alexander Graham Bell

 

Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell

Portrait of Alexander Graham Bell
ca. 1914–1919

Born March 3, 1847

Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

Died August 2, 1922(1922-08-02) (aged 75)

Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Canada

Cause of death Complications from diabetes
Residence U.K., U.S., Canada
Citizenship Scotland, USA, Canada
Alma mater University of Edinburgh

University College London

Occupation Inventor, Scientist, Engineer, Professor (Boston University), Teacher of the deaf
Known for Inventing the Telephone
Spouse Mabel Hubbard

(married 1877–1922)

Children (4) Two sons who died in infancy and two daughters
Parents Alexander Melville Bell

Eliza Grace Symonds Bell

Relatives Gardiner Greene Hubbard (father-in-law)

Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor (son-in-law)

Melville Bell Grosvenor (grandson)

Mabel Harlakenden Grosvenor (granddaughter)

Gilbert Melville Grosvenor (great-grandson)

Chichester Bell (cousin)

Signature

Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.[N 1]

Bell’s father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech, and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell’s life’s work.[3] His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first US patent for the telephone in 1876.[N 2] In retrospect, Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.[5][N 3]

Many other inventions marked Bell’s later life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications, hydrofoils and aeronautics. In 1888, Bell became one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society.[7] He has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history.[8]

Early life

Alexander Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland on March 3, 1847.[9] The family home was at 16 South Charlotte Street, and has a stone inscription, marking it as Alexander Graham Bell’s birthplace. He had two brothers: Melville James Bell (1845–70) and Edward Charles Bell (1848–67). Both of his brothers died of tuberculosis.[10] His father was Professor Alexander Melville Bell, and his mother was Eliza Grace (née Symonds).[N 4] Although he was born “Alexander”, at age 10, he made a plea to his father to have a middle name like his two brothers.[11][N 5] For his 11th birthday, his father acquiesced and allowed him to adopt the middle name “Graham”, chosen out of admiration for Alexander Graham, a Canadian being treated by his father and boarder who had become a family friend.[12] To close relatives and friends he remained “Aleck” which his father continued to call him into later life.[13]

First invention

As a child, young Alexander displayed a natural curiosity about his world, resulting in gathering botanical specimens as well as experimenting even at an early age. His best friend was Ben Herdman, a neighbor whose family operated a flour mill, the scene of many forays. Young Aleck asked what needed to be done at the mill. He was told wheat had to be dehusked through a laborious process and at the age of 12, Bell built a homemade device that combined rotating paddles with sets of nail brushes, creating a simple dehusking machine that was put into operation and used steadily for a number of years.[14] In return, John Herdman gave both boys the run of a small workshop in which to “invent”.[14]

From his early years, Bell showed a sensitive nature and a talent for art, poetry and music that was encouraged by his mother. With no formal training, he mastered the piano and became the family’s pianist.[15] Despite being normally quiet and introspective, he reveled in mimicry and “voice tricks” akin to ventriloquism that continually entertained family guests during their occasional visits.[15] Bell was also deeply affected by his mother’s gradual deafness, (she began to lose her hearing when he was 12) and learned a manual finger language so he could sit at her side and tap out silently the conversations swirling around the family parlour.[16] He also developed a technique of speaking in clear, modulated tones directly into his mother’s forehead wherein she would hear him with reasonable clarity.[17] Bell’s preoccupation with his mother’s deafness led him to study acoustics.

His family was long associated with the teaching of elocution: his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London, his uncle in Dublin, and his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists. His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are still well known, especially his The Standard Elocutionist (1860),[15] which appeared in Edinburgh in 1868. The Standard Elocutionist appeared in 168 British editions and sold over a quarter of a million copies in the United States alone. In this treatise, his father explains his methods of how to instruct deaf-mutes (as they were then known) to articulate words and read other people’s lip movements to decipher meaning. Aleck’s father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but to identify any symbol and its accompanying sound.[18] Aleck became so proficient that he became a part of his father’s public demonstrations and astounded audiences with his abilities. He was able to decipher Visible Speech representing virtually every language, including Latin, Scottish Gaelic and even Sanskrit, accurately reciting written tracts without any prior knowledge of their pronunciation.[18]

Education

As a young child, Bell, like his brothers, received his early schooling at home from his father. At an early age, however, he was enrolled at the Royal High School, Edinburgh, Scotland, which he left at age 15, completing only the first four forms.[19] His school record was undistinguished, marked by absenteeism and lacklustre grades. His main interest remained in the sciences, especially biology, while he treated other school subjects with indifference, to the dismay of his demanding father.[20] Upon leaving school, Bell travelled to London to live with his grandfather, Alexander Bell. During the year he spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, with long hours spent in serious discussion and study. The elder Bell took great efforts to have his young pupil learn to speak clearly and with conviction, the attributes that his pupil would need to become a teacher himself.[21] At age 16, Bell secured a position as a “pupil-teacher” of elocution and music, in Weston House Academy, at Elgin, Moray, Scotland. Although he was enrolled as a student in Latin and Greek, he instructed classes himself in return for board and £10 per session.[22] The following year, he attended the University of Edinburgh; joining his older brother Melville who had enrolled there the previous year. In 1868, not long before he departed for Canada with his family, Aleck completed his matriculation exams and was accepted for admission to the University of London.[23]

First experiments with sound

Bell’s father encouraged Aleck’s interest in speech and, in 1863, took his sons to see a unique automaton, developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone based on the earlier work of Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen.[24] The rudimentary “mechanical man” simulated a human voice. Aleck was fascinated by the machine and after he obtained a copy of von Kempelen’s book, published in German, and had laboriously translated it, he and his older brother Melville built their own automaton head. Their father, highly interested in their project, offered to pay for any supplies and spurred the boys on with the enticement of a “big prize” if they were successful.[24] While his brother constructed the throat and larynx, Aleck tackled the more difficult task of recreating a realistic skull. His efforts resulted in a remarkably lifelike head that could “speak”, albeit only a few words.[24] The boys would carefully adjust the “lips” and when a bellows forced air through the windpipe, a very recognizable “Mama” ensued, to the delight of neighbors who came to see the Bell invention.[25]

Intrigued by the results of the automaton, Bell continued to experiment with a live subject, the family’s Skye Terrier, “Trouve”.[26] After he taught it to growl continuously, Aleck would reach into its mouth and manipulate the dog’s lips and vocal cords to produce a crude-sounding “Ow ah oo ga ma ma”. With little convincing, visitors believed his dog could articulate “How are you grandma?” More indicative of his playful nature, his experiments convinced onlookers that they saw a “talking dog”.[27] However, these initial forays into experimentation with sound led Bell to undertake his first serious work on the transmission of sound, using tuning forks to explore resonance.

At the age of 19, he wrote a report on his work and sent it to philologist Alexander Ellis, a colleague of his father (who would later be portrayed as Professor Henry Higgins in Pygmalion).[27] Ellis immediately wrote back indicating that the experiments were similar to existing work in Germany, and also lent Aleck a copy of Hermann von Helmholtz‘s work, The Sensations of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music.[28]

Dismayed to find that groundbreaking work had already been undertaken by Helmholtz who had conveyed vowel sounds by means of a similar tuning fork “contraption”, he pored over the German scientist’s book. Working from his own errant mistranslation of the original German edition, Aleck fortuitously then made a deduction that would be the underpinning of all his future work on transmitting sound, reporting: “Without knowing much about the subject, it seemed to me that if vowel sounds could be produced by electrical means, so could consonants, so could articulate speech.” He also later remarked: “I thought that Helmhotz had done it … and that my failure was due only to my ignorance of electricity. It was a valuable blunder … If I had been able to read German in those days, I might never have commenced my experiments!”[29][30][31]

Family tragedy

In 1865, when the Bell family moved to London,[32] Bell returned to Weston House as an assistant master and, in his spare hours, continued experiments on sound using a minimum of laboratory equipment. Bell concentrated on experimenting with electricity to convey sound and later installed a telegraph wire from his room in Somerset College to that of a friend.[33] Throughout late 1867, his health faltered mainly through exhaustion. His younger brother, Edward “Ted,” was similarly bed-ridden, suffering from tuberculosis. While Bell recovered (by then referring to himself in correspondence as “A.G. Bell”) and served the next year as an instructor at Somerset College, Bath, England, his brother’s condition deteriorated. Edward would never recover. Upon his brother’s death, Bell returned home in 1867. His older brother Melville had married and moved out. With aspirations to obtain a degree at the University College London, Bell considered his next years as preparation for the degree examinations, devoting his spare time at his family’s residence to studying.

Helping his father in Visible Speech demonstrations and lectures brought Bell to Susanna E. Hull’s private school for the deaf in South Kensington, London. His first two pupils were “deaf mute” girls who made remarkable progress under his tutelage. While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including opening his own elocution school, applying for a patent on an invention, and starting a family, Bell continued as a teacher. However, in May 1870, Melville died from complications due to tuberculosis, causing a family crisis. His father had also suffered a debilitating illness earlier in life and had been restored to health by a convalescence in Newfoundland. Bell’s parents embarked upon a long-planned move when they realized that their remaining son was also sickly. Acting decisively, Alexander Melville Bell asked Bell to arrange for the sale of all the family property,[34][N 6] conclude all of his brother’s affairs (Bell took over his last student, curing a pronounced lisp),[35] and join his father and mother in setting out for the “New World“.[36] Reluctantly, Bell also had to conclude a relationship with Marie Eccleston, who, he had surmised, was not prepared to leave England with him.[36]

Canada

In 1870, at age 23, Bell, his brother’s widow, Caroline (Margaret Ottaway),[37] and his parents travelled on the SS Nestorian to Canada.[38] After landing at Quebec City, the Bells boarded a train to Montreal and later to Paris, Ontario, to stay with the Reverend Thomas Henderson, a family friend. After a brief stay with the Hendersons, the Bell family purchased a farm of 10.5 acres (42,000 m2) at Tutelo Heights (now called Tutela Heights), near Brantford, Ontario. The property consisted of an orchard, large farm house, stable, pigsty, hen-house and a carriage house, which bordered the Grand River.[39][N 7]

At the homestead, Bell set up his own workshop in the converted carriage house[41] near to what he called his “dreaming place”, a large hollow nestled in trees at the back of the property above the river.[42] Despite his frail condition upon arriving in Canada, Bell found the climate and environs to his liking, and rapidly improved.[43][N 8] He continued his interest in the study of the human voice and when he discovered the Six Nations Reserve across the river at Onondaga, he learned the Mohawk language and translated its unwritten vocabulary into Visible Speech symbols. For his work, Bell was awarded the title of Honorary Chief and participated in a ceremony where he donned a Mohawk headdress and danced traditional dances.[44][N 9]

After setting up his workshop, Bell continued experiments based on Helmholtz’s work with electricity and sound.[41] He designed a piano, which, by means of electricity, could transmit its music at a distance. Once the family was settled in, both Bell and his father made plans to establish a teaching practice and in 1871, he accompanied his father to Montreal, where Melville was offered a position to teach his System of Visible Speech.

Work with the deaf

Bell’s father was invited by Sarah Fuller, principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes (which continues today as the public Horace Mann School for the Deaf),[45] in Boston, Massachusetts, to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller’s instructors, but he declined the post, in favor of his son. Traveling to Boston in April 1871, Bell proved successful in training the school’s instructors.[46] He was subsequently asked to repeat the program at the American Asylum for Deaf-mutes in Hartford, Connecticut, and the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton, Massachusetts.

Returning home to Brantford after six months abroad, Bell continued his experiments with his “harmonic telegraph”.[47][N 10] The basic concept behind his device was that messages could be sent through a single wire if each message was transmitted at a different pitch, but work on both the transmitter and receiver was needed.[48] Unsure of his future, he first contemplated returning to London to complete his studies, but decided to return to Boston as a teacher.[49] His father helped him set up his private practice by contacting Gardiner Greene Hubbard, the president of the Clarke School for the Deaf for a recommendation. Teaching his father’s system, in October 1872 Alexander Bell opened his “School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech” in Boston, which attracted a large number of deaf pupils with his first class numbering 30 students.[50][51] While he was working as a private tutor, one of his most famous pupils was Helen Keller, who came to him as a young child unable to see, hear, or speak. She was later to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that “inhuman silence which separates and estranges.”[52]

Several influential people of the time, including Bell, viewed deafness as something that ought to be eradicated, and also believed that with resources and effort they could teach the deaf to speak and avoid the use of sign language, thus enabling their integration within the wider society from which many were often being excluded.[53] However in several schools children were mistreated, for example by having their hands tied behind their backs so they could not communicate by signing—the only language they knew—and were therefore forced to attempt oral communication. Due to his efforts to suppress the teaching of sign language, Bell is often viewed negatively by those embracing deaf culture.[citation needed]

Continuing experimentation

In the following year, Bell became professor of Vocal Physiology and Elocution at the Boston University School of Oratory. During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home. At Boston University, Bell was “swept up” by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors residing in the city. He continued his research in sound and endeavored to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation. While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house. Keeping up “night owl” hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment. Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover.[54] Worse still, his health deteriorated as he suffered severe headaches.[48] Returning to Boston in fall 1873, Bell made a fateful decision to concentrate on his experiments in sound.

Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell only retained two students, six-year old “Georgie” Sanders, deaf from birth and 15-year old Mabel Hubbard. Each pupil would serve to play an important role in the next developments. George’s father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay at nearby Salem with Georgie’s grandmother, complete with a room to “experiment”. Although the offer was made by George’s mother and followed the year-long arrangement in 1872 where her son and his nurse had moved to quarters next to Bell’s boarding house, it was clear that Mr. Sanders was backing the proposal. The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together with free room and board thrown in.[55] Mabel was a bright, attractive girl who was ten years his junior but became the object of Bell’s affection. Losing her hearing after a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever close to her fifth birthday,[56][57][N 11] she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard, Bell’s benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.[58]

Telephone

By 1874, Bell’s initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage with progress it made both at his new Boston “laboratory” (a rented facility) as well as at his family home in Canada a big success.[N 12] While working that summer in Brantford, Bell experimented with a “phonautograph“, a pen-like machine that could draw shapes of sound waves on smoked glass by tracing their vibrations. Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves.[59] Bell also thought that multiple metal reeds tuned to different frequencies like a harp would be able to convert the undulating currents back into sound. But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.[60]

In 1874, telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton, had become “the nervous system of commerce”. Orton had contracted with inventors Thomas Edison and Elisha Gray to find a way to send multiple telegraph messages on each telegraph line to avoid the great cost of constructing new lines.[61] When Bell mentioned to Gardiner Hubbard and Thomas Sanders that he was working on a method of sending multiple tones on a telegraph wire using a multi-reed device, the two wealthy patrons began to financially support Bell’s experiments.[62] Patent matters would be handled by Hubbard’s patent attorney, Anthony Pollok.[63]

In March 1875, Bell and Pollok visited the famous scientist Joseph Henry, who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution, and asked Henry’s advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph. Henry replied that Bell had “the germ of a great invention”. When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, “Get it!” That declaration greatly encouraged Bell to keep trying, even though he did not have the equipment needed to continue his experiments, nor the ability to create a working model of his ideas. However, a chance meeting in 1874 between Bell and Thomas A. Watson, an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that.

With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell was able to hire Thomas Watson as his assistant and the two of them experimented with acoustic telegraphy. On June 2, 1875, Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell, at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed; overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech. That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was necessary, not multiple reeds. This led to the “gallowssound-powered telephone, which was able to transmit indistinct, voice-like sounds, but not clear speech.

The race to the patent office

In 1875, Bell developed an acoustic telegraph and drew up a patent application for it. Since he had agreed to share U.S. profits with his investors Gardiner Hubbard and Thomas Sanders, Bell requested that an associate in Ontario, George Brown, attempt to patent it in Britain, instructing his lawyers to apply for a patent in the U.S. only after they received word from Britain (Britain would issue patents only for discoveries not previously patented elsewhere).[64]

Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone patent[65] drawing, March 7, 1876.

Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter. On February 14, 1876, Gray filed a caveat with the U.S. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter. That same morning, Bell’s lawyer filed Bell’s application with the patent office. There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell’s patent. Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February 26.

Bell’s patent 174,465, was issued to Bell on March 7, 1876, by the U.S. Patent Office. Bell’s patent covered “the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically … by causing electrical undulations, similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompanying the said vocal or other sound”[66] [N 13] Bell returned to Boston the same day and the next day resumed work, drawing in his notebook a diagram similar to that in Gray’s patent caveat.

On March 10, 1876, three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray’s design. Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the electrical resistance in the circuit. When Bell spoke the famous sentence “Mr Watson—Come here—I want to see you” into the liquid transmitter,[67] Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.[68]

Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray,[69] Bell used Gray’s water transmitter design only after Bell’s patent was granted and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment[70] to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible “articulate speech” (Bell’s words) could be electrically transmitted.[71] After March 1876, Bell focused on improving the electromagnetic telephone and never used Gray’s liquid transmitter in public demonstrations or commercial use.[72]

The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the Examiner before he approved Bell’s patent application. He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray’s caveat. Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in Bell’s previous application in which Bell described a cup of mercury, not water. Bell had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, 1875, long before Elisha Gray described the water device. In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because Gray did not contest Bell’s priority, the Examiner approved Bell’s patent on March 3, 1876. Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.[73]

The patent examiner, Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in a sworn affidavit[citation needed]that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell’s lawyer, Marcellus Bailey, with whom he had served in the Civil War. He claimed he showed Gray’s patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed (after Bell arrived in Washington D.C. from Boston) that he showed Gray’s caveat to Bell and that Bell paid him $100. Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details. Bell denied in a sworn affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money.

Later developments

Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone. On August 3, 1876, from the telegraph office in Mount Pleasant five miles (8 km) away from Brantford, Bell sent a tentative telegram indicating that he was ready. With curious onlookers packed into the office as witnesses, faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family when a message was received at the Bell home from Brantford, four miles (six km) distant along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel. This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. These experiments clearly proved that the telephone could work over long distances.[74]

Bell at the opening of the long-distance line from New York to Chicago in 1892.

Bell and his partners, Hubbard and Sanders, offered to sell the patent outright to Western Union for $100,000. The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. Two years later, he told colleagues that if he could get the patent for $25 million he would consider it a bargain. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent.[75] Bell’s investors would become millionaires while he fared well from residuals and at one point had assets of nearly one million dollars.[76]

Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public. Only one day later, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia made the telephone the featured headline worldwide.[77] Influential visitors to the exhibition included Emperor Pedro II of Brazil, and later Bell had the opportunity to demonstrate the invention personally to William Thomson, a renowned Scottish scientist. Later Bell demonstrated the invention to Queen Victoria who had requested a private audience at Osborne House, her Isle of Wight home. She called the demonstration “most extraordinary”. The enthusiasm surrounding Bell’s public displays laid the groundwork for universal acceptance of the revolutionary device.[78]

The Bell Telephone Company was created in 1877, and by 1886, more than 150,000 people in the U.S. owned telephones. Bell company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone, which emerged as one of the most successful products ever. In 1879, the Bell company acquired Edison’s patents for the carbon microphone from Western Union. This made the telephone practical for long distances and it was no longer necessary to shout to be heard at the receiving telephone.

In January 1915, Bell made the first ceremonial transcontinental telephone call. Calling from the AT&T head office at 15 Dey Street in New York City, Bell was heard by Thomas Watson at 333 Grant Avenue in San Francisco. The New York Times reported:

On October 9, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston. It was the first wire conversation ever held. Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, 1915] the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,400-mile wire between New York and San Francisco. Dr. Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent. They heard each other much more distinctly than they did in their first talk thirty-eight years ago.[79]

Competitors

As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone.[5] Over a period of 18 years, the Bell Telephone Company faced 587 court challenges to its patents, including five that went to the US Supreme Court,[80] but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent[81][82] and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial stage.[81] Bell’s laboratory notes and family letters were the key to establishing a long lineage to his experiments.[81] The Bell company lawyers successfully fought off myriad lawsuits generated initially around the challenges by Elisha Gray and Amos Dolbear. In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims.[83]

On January 13, 1887, the US Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation. After a series of decisions and reversals, the Bell company won a decision in the Supreme Court, though a couple of the original claims from the lower court cases were left undecided.[84][85] By the time that the trial wound its way through nine years of legal battles, the U.S. prosecuting attorney had died and the two Bell patents (No. 174,465 and dated March 7, 1876 and No. 186,787 dated January 30, 1877) were no longer in effect, although the presiding judges agreed to continue the proceedings due to the case’s importance as a “precedent”. With a change in administration and charges of conflict of interest (on both sides) arising from the original trial, the US Attorney General dropped the lawsuit on November 30, 1897 leaving several issues undecided on the merits.[86]

During a deposition filed for the 1887 trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in 1834. In 1886, in the first of three cases in which he was involved, Meucci took the stand as a witness in the hopes of establishing his invention’s priority. Meucci’s evidence in this case was disputed due to a lack of material evidence for his inventions as his working models were purportedly lost at the laboratory of American District Telegraph (ADT) of New York, which was later incorporated as a subsidiary of Western Union in 1901.[87][88] Meucci’s work, like many other inventors of the period, was based on earlier acoustic principles and despite evidence of earlier experiments, the final case involving Meucci was eventually dropped upon Meucci’s death.[89] However, due to the efforts of Congressman Vito Fossella, the U.S. House of Representatives on June 11, 2002 stated that Meucci’s “work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged”, even though this did not put an end to a still contentious issue.[90][91] [N 14][92] Some modern scholars do not agree with the claims that Bell’s work on the telephone was influenced by Meucci’s inventions.[93] [N 15]

The value of the Bell patent was acknowledged throughout the world, and patent applications were made in most major countries, but when Bell had delayed the German patent application, the electrical firm of Siemens & Halske (S&H) managed to set up a rival manufacturer of Bell telephones under their own patent. The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties.[94] The establishment of the International Bell Telephone Company in Brussels, Belgium in 1880, as well as a series of agreements in other countries eventually consolidated a global telephone operation. The strain put on Bell by his constant appearances in court, necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.[95][N 16]

Family life

Alexander Graham Bell, his wife Mabel Gardiner Hubbard, and their daughters Elsie (left) and Marian ca. 1885

On July 11, 1877, a few days after the Bell Telephone Company was established, Bell married Mabel Hubbard (1857–1923) at the Hubbard estate in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1,487 of his 1,497 shares in the newly formed Bell Telephone Company.[96] Shortly thereafter, the newlyweds embarked on a year-long honeymoon in Europe. During that excursion, Alec took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a “working holiday”. The courtship had begun years earlier; however, Alexander waited until he was more financially secure before marrying. Although the telephone appeared to be an “instant” success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell’s main sources of income were from lectures until after 1897.[97] One unusual request exacted by his fiancée was that he use “Alec” rather than the family’s earlier familiar name of “Aleck”. From 1876, he would sign his name “Alec Bell”.[98][N 17] They had four children: Elsie May Bell (1878–1964) who married Gilbert Grosvenor of National Geographic fame,[N 18][N 19][N 20] [N 21] Marian Hubbard Bell (1880–1962) who was referred to as “Daisy”,[N 22] and two sons who died in infancy. The Bell family home was in Cambridge, Massachusetts, until 1880 when Bell’s father-in-law bought a house in Washington, D.C., and later in 1882 bought a home in the same city for Bell’s family, so that they could be with him while he attended to the numerous court cases involving patent disputes.[99]

Bell was a British subject throughout his early life in Scotland and later in Canada until 1882, when he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. In 1915, he characterized his status as: “I am not one of those hyphenated Americans who claim allegiance to two countries.”[100] Despite this declaration, Bell has been proudly claimed as a “native son” by all three countries he resided in: the United States, Canada and Scotland.[101]

A three-story gray mansion, with an impressive covered front entrance

The Brodhead-Bell mansion, the Bell family residence in Washington, D.C., from 1882 to 1889.[102]

By 1885, a new summer retreat was contemplated. That summer, the Bells had a vacation on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, spending time at the small village of Baddeck.[103] Returning in 1886, Bell started building an estate on a point across from Baddeck, overlooking Bras d’Or Lake.[104] By 1889, a large house, christened The Lodge was completed and two years later, a larger complex of buildings, including a new laboratory,[103] were begun that the Bells would name Beinn Bhreagh (Gaelic: beautiful mountain) after Alec’s ancestral Scottish highlands.[105] [N 23]Bell would spend his final, and some of his most productive, years in residence in both Washington, D.C., where he and his family initially resided for most of the year, and at Beinn Bhreagh.[106]

Until the end of his life, Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that his annual stays lengthened. Both Mabel and Alec became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as “their own”.[103] The Bells were still in residence at Beinn Bhreagh when the Halifax Explosion occurred on December 6, 1917. Mabel and Alec mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax.[107]

Later inventions

Alexander Graham Bell in his later years.

Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied. According to one of his biographers, Charlotte Gray, Bell’s work ranged “unfettered across the scientific landscape” and he often went to bed voraciously reading the Encyclopædia Britannica, scouring it for new areas of interest.[108] The range of Bell’s inventive genius is represented only in part by the 18 patents granted in his name alone and the 12 he shared with his collaborators. These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the Photophone, one for the phonograph, five for aerial vehicles, four for “hydroairplanes” and two for selenium cells. Bell’s inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding alternative fuels.

Bell worked extensively in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf. During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound. Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they were unable to develop a workable prototype. They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the tape recorder, the hard disc and floppy disc drive and other magnetic media.

Bell’s own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice. He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution. Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories. At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere. In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses.

Metal detector

Bell is also credited with the invention of the metal detector in 1881. The device was quickly put together in an attempt to find the bullet in the body of US President James Garfield. The metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find the assassin’s bullet partly because the metal bed frame on which the President was lying disturbed the instrument, resulting in static.[109] The president’s surgeons, who were skeptical of the device, ignored Bell’s requests to move the president to a bed not fitted with metal springs. Alternatively, although Bell had detected a slight sound on his first test, the bullet may have been lodged too deeply to be detected by the crude apparatus.[109] Bell gave a full account of his experiments in a paper read before the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in August 1882.

Hydrofoils

Bell HD-4 on a test run ca. 1919

The March 1906 Scientific American article by American pioneer William E. Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils and hydroplanes. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement. Based on information gained from that article he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. Bell and assistant Frederick W. “Casey” Baldwin began hydrofoil experimentation in the summer of 1908 as a possible aid to airplane takeoff from water. Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models. This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft.

During his world tour of 1910–11, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in France. They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore. Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag, the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil.[110] The experimental boats were essentially proof-of-concept prototypes that culminated in the more substantial HD-4, powered by Renault engines. A top speed of 54 miles per hour (87 km/h) was achieved, with the hydrofoil exhibiting rapid acceleration, good stability and steering along with the ability to take waves without difficulty.[111] In 1913, Dr. Bell hired Walter Pinaud, a Sydney yacht designer and builder as well as the proprietor of Pinaud’s Yacht Yard in Westmount, Nova Scotia to work on the pontoons of the HD-4. Pinaud soon took over the boatyard at Bell Laboratories on Beinn Bhreagh, Bell’s estate near Baddeck, Nova Scotia. Pinaud’s experience in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD-4. After the First World War, work began again on the HD-4. Bell’s report to the U.S. Navy permitted him to obtain two 350 horsepower (260 kW) engines in July 1919. On September 9, 1919, the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of 70.86 miles per hour (114.04 km/h),[112] a record which stood for ten years.

Aeronautics

AEA Silver Dart ca. 1909

In 1891, Bell had begun experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. The AEA was first formed as Bell shared the vision to fly with his wife, who advised him to seek “young” help as Alexander was at the graceful age of 60.

In 1898, Bell experimented with tetrahedral box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in maroon silk.[N 24] The tetrahedral wings were named Cygnet I, II and III, and were flown both unmanned and manned (Cygnet I crashed during a flight carrying Selfridge) in the period from 1907–1912. Some of Bell’s kites are on display at the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site.[114]

Bell was a supporter of aerospace engineering research through the Aerial Experiment Association (AEA), officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in October 1907 at the suggestion of his wife Mabel and with her financial support after the sale of some of her real estate.[115] The AEA was headed by Bell and the founding members were four young men: American Glenn H. Curtiss, a motorcycle manufacturer at the time and who held the title “world’s fastest man”, having ridden his self-constructed motor bicycle around in the shortest time, and who was later awarded the Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the Western hemisphere, and who later became a world-renowned airplane manufacturer; Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge, an official observer from the US Federal government and the only person in the army who believed aviation was the future; Frederick W. Baldwin, the first Canadian and first British subject to pilot a public flight in Hammondsport, New York, and J.A.D. McCurdy —Baldwin and McCurdy being new engineering graduates from the University of Toronto.

The AEA’s work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders. Moving to Hammondsport, the group then designed and built the Red Wing, framed in bamboo and covered in red silk and powered by a small air-cooled engine.[116] On March 12, 1908, over Keuka Lake, the biplane lifted off on the first public flight in North America.[N 25] [N 26] The innovations that were incorporated into this design included a cockpit enclosure and tail rudder (later variations on the original design would add ailerons as a means of control). One of the AEA’s inventions, the aileron, which was also created independently by Robert Esnault-Pelterie and several others, was to become a standard component on all airplanes. The White Wing and June Bug were to follow and by the end of 1908, over 150 flights without mishap had been accomplished. However, the AEA had depleted its initial reserves and only a $15,000 grant from Mrs. Bell allowed it to continue with experiments.[117]

Their final aircraft design, the Silver Dart embodied all of the advancements found in the earlier machines. On February 23, 1909, Bell was present as the Silver Dart flown by J.A.D. McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d’Or, made the first aircraft flight in Canada. Bell had worried that the flight was too dangerous and had arranged for a doctor to be on hand. With the successful flight, the AEA disbanded and the Silver Dart would revert to Baldwin and McCurdy who began the Canadian Aerodrome Company and would later demonstrate the aircraft to the Canadian Army.[118]

Eugenics

Bell was connected with the eugenics movement in the United States. In his lecture Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race presented to the National Academy of Sciences on November 13, 1883 he noted that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that couples where both parties were deaf should not marry.[119] However, it was his hobby of livestock breeding which led to his appointment to biologist David Starr Jordan‘s Committee on Eugenics, under the auspices of the American Breeders Association. The committee unequivocally extended the principle to man.[120] From 1912 until 1918 he was the chairman of the board of scientific advisers to the Eugenics Record Office associated with Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York, and regularly attended meetings. In 1921, he was the honorary president of the Second International Congress of Eugenics held under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Organisations such as these advocated passing laws (with success in some states) that established the compulsory sterilization of people deemed to be, as Bell called them, a “defective variety of the human race”. By the late 1930s, about half the states in the U.S. had eugenics laws, and California’s compulsory sterilization law was used as a model for that of Nazi Germany.[121]

Legacy and honors

Bell statue by A.E. Cleeve Horne,[122] similar in style to the Lincoln Memorial, in the front portico of the Bell Telephone Building of Brantford, Ontario, The Telephone City. (Courtesy: Brantford Heritage Inventory, City of Brantford, Ontario, Canada)

Honors and tributes flowed to Bell in increasing numbers as his most famous invention became ubiquitous and his personal fame grew. Bell received numerous honorary degrees from colleges and universities, to the point that the requests almost became burdensome.[123] During his life he also received dozens of major awards, medals and other tributes. These included statuary monuments to both him and the new form of communication his telephone created, notably the Bell Telephone Memorial erected in his honor in Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in Brantford, Ontario, in 1917.[124]

A large number of Bell’s writings, personal correspondence, notebooks, papers and other documents[125] reside at both the United States Library of Congress Manuscript Division (as the Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers), and at the Alexander Graham Bell Institute], Cape Breton University, Nova Scotia; major portions of which are available for online viewing.

A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Bell in North America and Europe, including the first telephone companies of the United States and Canada. Among the major sites are:

  • The Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site, maintained by Parks Canada, which incorporates the Alexander Graham Bell Museum, in Baddeck, Nova Scotia, close to the Bell estate Beinn Bhreagh[126]
  • The Bell Homestead National Historic Site, also known as Melville House, overlooking Brantford, Ontario and the Grand River, which was the Bell family’s first home in North America;
  • Canada’s first telephone company building, “the Henderson Home”, of the nascent 1877 Bell Telephone Company of Canada, which was carefully relocated in 1969 to the historic Bell Homestead. The Bell Homestead” and the “Bell Telephone Company Building” are both maintained by the Bell Homestead Society. in Brantford, Ontario[127]
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Memorial Park, which features a broad neoclassical monument built in 1917 by public subscription. The monument graphically depicts mankind’s ability to span the globe through telecommunications;[128]
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Museum (opened in 1956), part of the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site which was completed in 1978 in Baddeck, Nova Scotia. Many of the museum’s artifacts were donated by Bell’s daughters;

    The Bell Museum, Cape Breton, part of the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site.

  • In 1880, Bell received the Volta Prize with a purse of 50,000 francs (approximately US$250,000 in today’s dollars[129]) for the invention of the telephone from the Académie française, representing the French government. Among the luminaries who judged were Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas. The Volta Prize was conceived by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1801, and named in honor of Alessandro Volta, with Bell receiving the third grand prize in its history.[130][131][132][133][134][135][136][137] Since Bell was becoming increasingly affluent, he used his prize money to create endowment funds (the ‘Volta Fund’) and institutions in and around the United States capital of Washington, D.C.. These included the prestigious ‘Volta Laboratory Association’ (1880), also known as the Volta Laboratory and as the ‘Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory’, and which eventually led to the Volta Bureau (1887) as a center for studies on deafness which is still in operation in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. The Volta Laboratory became an experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery, and the very next year invented a wax phonograph cylinder that was later used by Thomas Edison;[138] The laboratory was also the site where he and his associate invented his ‘proudest achievement’, the Photophone, the optical telephone which presaged fibre optical telecommunications, while the Volta Bureau would later evolve into the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (the AG Bell), a leading center for the research and pedagogy of deafness.

In partnership with Gardiner Hubbard, Bell helped establish the publication Science during the early 1880s. In 1888, Bell was one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society and became its second president (1897–1904), and also became a Regent of the Smithsonian Institution (1898–1922). The French government conferred on him the decoration of the Légion d’honneur (Legion of Honor); the Royal Society of Arts in London awarded him the Albert Medal in 1902; and the University of Würzburg, Bavaria, granted him a PhD He was awarded the Franklin Institute‘s Elliott Cresson Medal in 1912. He was one of the founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1884, and served as its president from 1891–92. Bell was later awarded the AIEE’s Edison Medal in 1914 “For meritorious achievement in the invention of the telephone”.[139]

The bel (B) and the smaller decibel (dB) are units of measurement of sound intensity invented by Bell Labs and named after him.[140] [N 27][141] Since 1976 the IEEE‘s Alexander Graham Bell Medal has been awarded to honor outstanding contributions in the field of telecommunications.

~ A.G. Bell ~ 

Issue of 1940

In 1940 the US Post Office issued a commemorative stamp honoring Bell in its ‘Famous Americans Series’. The First Day of Issue ceremony was held on October 28 in Boston, Massachusetts, the city where Bell spent considerable time on research and working with the deaf. The Bell stamp became very popular and sold out in little time. The stamp became, and remains to this day, the most valuable one of the series.[142]

The 150th anniversary of Bell’s birth in 1997 was marked by a special issue of commemorative £1 banknotes from the Royal Bank of Scotland. The illustrations on the reverse of the note include Bell’s face in profile, his signature, and objects from Bell’s life and career: users of the telephone over the ages; an audio wave signal; a diagram of a telephone receiver; geometric shapes from engineering structures; representations of sign language and the phonetic alphabet; the geese which helped him to understand flight; and the sheep which he studied to understand genetics.[143] Additionally, the Government of Canada honored Bell in 1997 with a C$100 gold coin, in tribute also to the 150th anniversary of his birth,[144] and with a silver dollar coin in 2009 to honor of the 100th anniversary of flight in Canada. That first flight was made by an airplane designed under Dr. Bell’s tutelage, named the Silver Dart[145] Bell’s image, and also those of his many inventions have graced paper money, coinage and postal stamps in numerous countries worldwide for many dozens of years.

Bell’s name is widely known and still used as part of the names of dozens of educational institutes, corporate namesakes, street and place names around the world. Alexander Graham Bell was also ranked 57th among the 100 Greatest Britons (2002) in an official BBC nationwide poll, and among the Top Ten Greatest Canadians (2004), and the 100 Greatest Americans (2005).[146][147] In 2006, Bell was also named as one of the 10 greatest Scottish scientists in history after having been listed in the National Library of Scotland‘s ‘Scottish Science Hall of Fame’.[148]

Bell, an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, receiving an honorary Doctor of Laws degree (LL.D.) at the university in 1906.

Honorary degrees

Alexander Graham Bell, who was unable to complete the university program of his youth, received numerous Honorary Degrees from academic institutions, including:

Death

Bell died of complications arising from diabetes on August 2, 1922, at his private estate, Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, at age 75.[152] Bell had also been afflicted with pernicious anemia.[153] His last view of the land he had inhabited was by moonlight on his mountain estate at 2:00 A.M.[N 28][156][N 29] While tending to her husband after his long illness, Mabel whispered, “Don’t leave me.” By way of reply, Bell traced the sign for no—and then he expired.[132][157]

On learning of Bell’s death, the Canadian Prime Minister, Mackenzie King, cabled Mrs. Bell, saying:

[The Government expresses] to you our sense of the world's loss in the death of your distinguished husband. It will ever be a source of pride to our country that the great invention, with which his name is immortally associated, is a part of its history. On the behalf of the citizens of Canada, may I extend to you an expression of our combined gratitude and sympathy.[132]

Bell’s coffin was constructed of Beinn Bhreagh pine by his laboratory staff, lined with the same red silk fabric used in his tetrahedral kite experiments. To help celebrate his life, his wife asked guests not to wear black (the traditional funeral color) while attending his service, during which soloist Jean MacDonald sang a verse of Robert Louis Stevenson’s ‘Requiem’:[158]

Under a wide and starry sky,
Dig the grave and let me lie.
Glad did I live and gladly die
And I lay me down with a will.

Upon the conclusion of Bell’s funeral, “every phone on the continent of North America was silenced in honor of the man who had given to mankind the means for direct communication at a distance”.[103][159]

Dr. Alexander Graham Bell was buried atop Beinn Bhreagh mountain, on his estate where he had resided increasingly for the last 35 years of his life, overlooking Bras d’Or Lake.[132] He was survived by his wife Mabel and his two daughters, Elsie May and Marion.[132][160]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Bell was a British citizen for most of his early life. He applied for American citizenship after 1877, gained it in 1882, and referred to himself as an American citizen from that point on. Quote from Bell speaking to his wife: “you are a citizen because you can’t help it – you were born one, but I chose to be one.”[1] Aside from Bell’s own view of his citizenship, many, if not most Canadians considered him also as one of theirs as evidenced in an address by the Governor General of Canada. On October 24, 1917 he spoke in Brantford, Ontario at the unveiling of the Bell Telephone Memorial to an audience numbering in the thousands, saying: “Dr. Bell is to be congratulated upon being able to receive the recognition of his fellow citizens and fellow countrymen”.[2]
  2. ^ Quote: “He thought he could harness the new electronic technology by creating a machine with a transmitter and receiver that would send sounds telegraphically to help people hear.”[4]
  3. ^ After Bell’s death his wife Mabel wrote to John J. Carty, an AT&T vice-president, and commented on her husband’s reluctance to have a phone in his study, saying “[of the statements in the newspapers] …publishing of Mr. Bell’s dislike of the telephone. Of course, he never had one in his study. That was where he went when he wanted to be alone with his thoughts and his work. The telephone, of course, means intrusion by the outside world. And the little difficulties and delays often attending the establishment of conversation… did irritate him, so that as a rule he preferred having others send and receive messages. But all really important business over the telephone he transacted himself. There are few private houses more completely equipped with telephones than ours… and there was nothing that Mr. Bell was more particular about than our telephone service… We never could have come here [to Beinn Bhreagh] in the first place or continued here, but for the telephone which kept us in close touch with doctors and neighbors and the regular telegraph office. . . . Mr. Bell did like to say in fun, “Why did I ever invent the Telephone,” but no one had a higher appreciation of its indispensableness or used it more freely when need was—either personally or by deputy —and he was really tremendously proud of it and all it was accomplishing.”[6]
  4. ^ “Alexander M. Bell Dead. Father of Prof. A.G. Bell Developed Sign Language for Mutes.” New York Times Tuesday, August 8, 1905.
  5. ^ Bell typically signed his name in full on his correspondence.
  6. ^ The family pet was given to his brother’s family.
  7. ^ The estate, dating from 1858, is in the present day located at 94 Tutela Heights Road, Brantford, and is now known as the “Bell Homestead”, and formally as the Bell Homestead National Historic Site of Canada. It received its historical designation from the Government of Canada on 1 June 1996.[40]
  8. ^ Bell would later write that he had come to Canada a “dying man”.
  9. ^ Bell was thrilled at his recognition by the Six Nations Reserve and throughout his life would launch into a Mohawk war dance when he was excited.
  10. ^ In later years, Bell described the invention of the telephone and linked it to his “dreaming place”.
  11. ^ Eber claimed that Mabel suffered scarlet fever in New York “…shortly before her fifth birthday…“, however Toward provided a detailed chronology of the event claiming “… shortly after their arrival in New York [in January 1863]”, when Mabel would have been at least five years and five weeks of age. Mabel’s exact age when she became deaf would later play a part in the debate on the effectiveness of manual versus oral education for deaf children, as children who are older at the onset of deafness retain greater vocalization skills and are thus more successful in oral education programs. Some of the debate centred on whether Mabel had to relearn oral speech from scratch, or whether she never lost it.
  12. ^ Quote: “Brantford is justified in calling herself ‘The Telephone City’ because the telephone originated there. It was invented in Brantford at Tutela Heights in the summer of 1874.”[47]
  13. ^ A copy of a draft of the patent application is shown, described as “probably the most valuable patent ever.”
  14. ^ Meucci was not involved in the final trial.
  15. ^ Tomas Farley also writes that “Nearly every scholar agrees that Bell and Watson were the first to transmit intelligible speech by electrical means. Others transmitted a sound or a click or a buzz but our boys [Bell and Watson] were the first to transmit speech one could understand.”
  16. ^ Many of the lawsuits became rancorous with Elisha Gray becoming particularly bitter over Bell’s ascendancy in the telephone debate but Alec refused to launch counter actions for libel.
  17. ^ “Mrs. A.G. Bell Dies. Inspired Telephone. Deaf Girl’s Romance With Distinguished Inventor Was Due to Her Affliction.” New York Times, January 4, 1923.
  18. ^ “Dr. Gilbert H. Grosvenor Dies; Head of National Geographic, 90; Editor of Magazine 55 Years Introduced Photos, Increased Circulation to 4.5 million.” New York Times, February 5, 1966.
  19. ^ Baddeck, Nova Scotia, February 4, 1964 (Canadian Press): Dr. Gilbert H. Grosvenor, chairman of the board and former president of the National Geographic Society and editor of the National Geographic from 1899 to 1954, died on the Cape Breton Island estate once owned by his father-in-law, the inventor Alexander Graham Bell. He was 90 years old.
  20. ^ “Mrs. Gilbert Grosvenor Dead; Joined in Geographic’s Treks; Married Professor’s Son.” New York Times, December 27, 1964.
  21. ^ Quote: “Washington, D.C., December 26, 1964: Mrs. Elsie May Bell Grosvenor, wife of Dr. Gilbert Grosvenor, chairman of the board of the National Geographic Society, died this evening at her home in Bethesda, Maryland. She was 86 years old. Death was attributed to heart disease and old age.”
  22. ^ “Mrs. David Fairchild, 82, Dead; Daughter of Bell, Phone Inventor.” New York Times, September 25, 1962. Quote: Baddeck, Nova Scotia, September 24, 1962 (The Canadian Press) Mrs. Marian Bell Fairchild of Miami, widow of David Fairchild, noted plant explorer, and daughter of the telephone pioneer Alexander Graham Bell, died tonight at her summer home. She was 82 years old.”
  23. ^ Under the direction of the Boston architects, Cabot, Everett and Mead, a Nova Scotia company, Rhodes, Curry and Company, carried out the actual construction.
  24. ^ Bell was inspired in part by Australian aeronautical engineer Lawrence Hargrave‘s work with man-carrying box kites.[113] Hargrave declined to take patents on his inventions, similar to Bell’s decision not to file patents on some of his inventions. Bell also chose maroon-colored silk as it would show up clearly against the light-colored sky in his photographic studies.
  25. ^ “Selfridge Aerodrome Sails Steadily for 319 feet (97 m).” Washington Post May 13, 1908.
  26. ^ At 25 to 30 Miles an Hour. First Public Trip of Heavier-than-air Car in America. Professor Alexander Graham Bell’s New Machine, Built After Plans by Lieutenant Selfridge, Shown to Be Practicable by Flight Over Keuka Lake. Portion of Tail Gives Way, Bringing the Test to an End. Views of an Expert. Hammondsport, New York, March 12, 1908.
  27. ^ The decibel is defined as one tenth of a bel.
  28. ^ In the last years of his life, as his final projects wound down, Bell and his wife, their extended family and friends, lived exclusively at their beloved Beinn Bhreagh.[154][155]
  29. ^ Quote: “[his end came] at 2:00 am… His wife, Mabel, daughter Daisy, and son-in-law David Fairchild had gathered around him. His last view was of the moon rising above the mountain he loved”.

Citations

  1. ^ Gray 2006, p. 228.
  2. ^ Reville, F. Douglas. History of the County of Brant: Illustrated With Fifty Half-Tones Taken From Miniatures And Photographs, Brantford, ON: Brant Historical Society, Hurley Printing, 1920, p.319. Retrieved from Brantford.Library.on.ca May 4, 2012.
  3. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 419.
  4. ^ Black 1997, p. 18.
  5. ^ a b MacLeod 1999, p. 19.
  6. ^ Bell, Mabel. Twenty-Five Years Ago: Dr. Bell’s Telephone Service (letter, dated August 24, 1922), Bell Telephone Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 3, October 1922, reprinted in Bell Telephone Magazine, Autumn 1947, pg. 174.
  7. ^ “National Geographic Mission.” nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved: July 28, 2010.
  8. ^ Hart 2000, p. 222.
  9. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 4.
  10. ^ “Time Line of Alexander Graham Bell.” memory.loc.goiv. Retrieved: July 28, 2010.
  11. ^ “Call me Alexander Graham Bell.” fi.edu. Retrieved: July 28, 2010.
  12. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 23.
  13. ^ Bruce 1990, pp. 17–19.
  14. ^ a b Bruce 1990, p. 16.
  15. ^ a b c Gray 2006, p. 8.
  16. ^ Gray 2006, p. 9.
  17. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 25.
  18. ^ a b Petrie 1975, p. 7.
  19. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 31.
  20. ^ Gray 2006, p. 11.
  21. ^ Town 1988, p. 7.
  22. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 37.
  23. ^ Shulman 2008, p. 49.
  24. ^ a b c Groundwater 2005, p. 25.
  25. ^ Petrie 1975, pp. 7–9.
  26. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 9.
  27. ^ a b Groundwater 2005, p. 30.
  28. ^ Shulman 2008, p. 46.
  29. ^ MacKenzie 2003, p. 41.
  30. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 31.
  31. ^ Shulman 2008, pp. 46–48.
  32. ^ Micklos 2006, p. 8.
  33. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 45.
  34. ^ Bruce 1990, pp. 67–68.
  35. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 68.
  36. ^ a b Groundwater 2005, p. 33.
  37. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 50.
  38. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 10.
  39. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 61.
  40. ^ Canadian Register of Historic Places. Canada’s Historic Places: Bell Homestead National Historic Site of Canada, Canadian Register of Historic Places, Parks Canada website, which in turn cites:
    • Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, Minutes, May 1934 & June 1996. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  41. ^ a b Wing 1980, p. 10.
  42. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 34.
  43. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 62.
  44. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 35.
  45. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 74.
  46. ^ Town 1988, p. 12.
  47. ^ a b Alexander Graham Bell 1979, p. 8.
  48. ^ a b Groundwater 2005, p. 39.
  49. ^ Petrina 1975, p. 14.
  50. ^ Petrel 1975, p. 15.
  51. ^ Town 1988, pp. 12–13.
  52. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 17.
  53. ^ Miller and Branson 2002, pp. 30–31, 152–53.
  54. ^ Town 1988, p. 15.
  55. ^ Town 1988, p. 16.
  56. ^ Toward 1984, p. 1.
  57. ^ Eber 1991, p. 43.
  58. ^ Dunn 1990, p. 20.
  59. ^ Matthews 1999, pp. 19–21.
  60. ^ Matthews 1999, p. 21.
  61. ^ “A History of Electrical Engineering.” ieee.cincinnati.fuse.net. Retrieved December 29, 2009.
  62. ^ Town 1988, p. 17.
  63. ^ Evenson 2000, pp. 18–25.
  64. ^ Bruce 1990, pp. 158–159.
  65. ^ US 174465  Alexander Graham Bell: “Improvement in Telegraphy” filed on February 14, 1876, granted on March 7, 1876.
  66. ^ MacLeod 1999, pp. 12–13.
  67. ^ “Bell’s Lab notebook I, pp. 40–41 (image 22).” loc.gov. Retrieved: July 28, 2010.
  68. ^ MacLeod 1999, p. 12.
  69. ^ Shulman 2008, p. 211.
  70. ^ Evenson 2000, p. 99.
  71. ^ Evenson 2000, p. 98.
  72. ^ Evenson 2000, p. 100.
  73. ^ Evenson 2000, pages 81–82.
  74. ^ MacLeod 1999, p. 14.
  75. ^ Fenster, Julie M. “Inventing the Telephone—And Triggering All-Out Patent War.” AmericanHeritage.com, American Heritage, 2006.
  76. ^ Winfield 1987, p. 21.
  77. ^ Webb 1991, p. 15.
  78. ^ Ross 1995, pp. 21–22.
  79. ^ “Phone to Pacific From the Atlantic”. New York Times, January 26, 1915. Retrieved July 21, 2007.
  80. ^ Australasian Telephone Collecting Society. Who Really Invented The Telephone?, ATCS, Moorebank, NSW, Australia. Retrieved from http://www.telephonecollecting.org website on April 22, 2011.
  81. ^ a b c Groundwater 2005, p. 95.
  82. ^ Black 1997, p. 19.
  83. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 179.
  84. ^ “U.S. Supreme Court: U S v. AMERICAN BELL TEL CO, 167 U.S. 224 (1897).” caselaw.lp. Retrieved: July 28, 2010.
  85. ^ “United states V. American Bell Telephone Co., 128 U.S. 315 (1888).” supreme.justia.com. Retrieved: July 28, 2010.
  86. ^ Basilio Catania 2002 “The United States Government vs. Alexander Graham Bell. An important acknowledgment for Antonio Meucci.” Bulletin of Science Technology Society, 2002; 22: pp. 426–442. Retrieved December 29, 2009.
  87. ^ Catania, Basilio “Antonio Meucci – Questions and Answers: What did Meucci to bring his invention to the public?” Chezbasilio.it website. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  88. ^ “History of ADT Security.” ADT.com website. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  89. ^ Bruce 1990, pp. 271–272.
  90. ^ “H.RES.269: Resolution 269.” thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved: July 28, 2010.
  91. ^ “Congressional Record on Meucci.” esanet.it. Retrieved December 29, 2009.
  92. ^ “Meucci Story.” Italian Historical Society. Retrieved: July 28, 2010.
  93. ^ “Antonio Meucci.” inventors.about.com. Retrieved December 29, 2009.
  94. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 178.
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Bibliography

External links

Patents

U.S. patent images in TIFF format

  • U.S. Patent 161,739 Improvement in Transmitters and Receivers for Electric Telegraphs, filed March 1875, issued April 1875 (multiplexing signals on a single wire)
  • U.S. Patent 174,465 Improvement in Telegraphy, filed February 14, 1876, issued March 7, 1876 (Bell’s first telephone patent)
  • U.S. Patent 178,399 Improvement in Telephonic Telegraph Receivers, filed April 1876, issued June 1876
  • U.S. Patent 181,553 Improvement in Generating Electric Currents (using rotating permanent magnets), filed August 1876, issued August 1876
  • U.S. Patent 186,787 Electric Telegraphy (permanent magnet receiver), filed January 15, 1877, issued January 30, 1877
  • U.S. Patent 235,199 Apparatus for Signalling and Communicating, called Photophone, filed August 1880, issued December 1880
  • U.S. Patent 757,012 Aerial Vehicle, filed June 1903, issued April 1904

Movie biographies

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Gardiner Greene Hubbard

President of the National Geographic Society

1897–1904

Succeeded by

William John McGee

 





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